The idea to establish the scientific facility for social sciences on the east of Slovakia had originated before the year 1970. But the direct decision to establish The Institute of Social Sciences of Slovak Academy of Science in Košice passed in June 1972. The activity of the Institute of Social Sciences started in the 1stof January 1975. At the beginning there were 18 employees who studied mainly political, socio economic and cultural processes in the eastern region of Slovakia after the year 1945.
The Institute of Social Sciences worked as interdisciplinary system. There were three scientific departments: the History, Sociology and Social Psychology department. Mixed scientific research groups studied the nationalities and youth. From 1980 the Institute of Social Sciences started to be engaged in research of organizations´ relations of eastern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia. In 1979 the two first issues of the journal The Scientific Information of the Social Sciences Institute of Slovak Academy of Science were published. The journal had been published until 1990.
From 1986 the questions of the status of Hungarian and Ukrainian nationalities after 1948 became priority. At the same time the scientific research of Roma family began. In 1989 – 1991 publications were preparing to be published. These publications were focused on the questions of development of Ukrainian, Hungarian and Roma minorities.
The new organization´s rules were passed in the 1stof January 1989. The departure for minorities’ research, for youth research, for Roma family research and the basic information centre were found. There were also unions, the more freely organized departments, representing disciplines of the science: the History, the Social Psychology and the Sociology.
After the 1989 the space for scientific research activity broadened. There were more favorable conditions for the international cooperation, for the new research projects and also for work and publishing abroad. In 1991 the grant system was inducted and it has been used until nowadays with small modifications. The structure of the Institute of Social Sciences began more flexible depending on concrete research tasks. The most of the employees work actively also at the universities.
In 1989 – 1993 the number of employees decreased. This situation has remained to these days with moderate variations. Even though, the effectiveness of research increased. Despite of lack of the finances, the Institute of Social Sciences was equipped by computer technology and it was modernized.
In the 2ndhalf of nineties of 20thcentury, the Institute of Social Sciences started to work as scientific research facility focused on the interdisciplinary research of ethnic relationships. It focused mainly on minorities’ questions and on social psychology research of behavior strategies in stressful situations. The present scientific research connects the previous focus. The research reacts also on actual social problems for example on the unemployment, the ethnic identity questions, the Roma questions and so on.
After 1989 the possibilities of international cooperation in research broadened. Contracts were signed and the employees became co-researcher in various international projects which were organized by institutions in France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Slovenia and in Poland. This trend has continued nowadays. The employees are engaged in the large international project, the European Social Survey (ESS).